Introduction

Background

Since its inception, the consensus algorithm underpinning the blockchain network, has given rise to opportunities to create autonomous, transparent, and efficient financial products. Blockchain-based exchanges and infrastructures have ushered in the next major era of the open world.

The future of senior trading tutoring is open, far more evenly distributed, and plenty of arbitrage chances not only for a few entitled ones, but for all who can connect high throughput blockchains. Most notably, continuously low-barrier approvals pertain to behaviors including lending the long-term holding tokens, borrowing from the smart contracts, shorting the tokens to smooth market structural changes in volatility.

While it may sound precarious to allow a parcel of codes to take over the position of traditional banks and brokers, the design logic for doing so runs in a publicly investigated mechanism based on an immutable blockchain.

Shorter was born out of a desire to provide intrinsic value and seek to build DeFi things serving users directly, decoupling from convoluted and redundant procedures. It's supposed to purvey a multitude of easy entries into digital portfolio management with controllable loss, just as plain as E-mail.

How Typical Short Selling Works

This section conducts an analysis of the classical procedure of shorting assets via brokerages or investment banks, quoting how we offer such a singular solution with the components behind conserving traders and the other roles all over the market.

Individuals or institutes allow their brokers to lend their stocks for interests at a fixed rate with the given permission. Needless to say, "no questions asked" share return policy applies to the brokers, which means the stock must be repaid to the lenders in original forms if the lending contracts breached, matured, or ended.

If Hwang supposes that Apple's (NASDAQ: AAPL) stock is overvalued at $150 per share, and is going to dump in price. He might borrow 10 shares of AAPL from their broker, who sells them at the market price of $150 then.

When the stock goes down to $100, Hwang empirically buys the 10 shares back and returns these AAPLs to his broker. A profit of $500 ($1,500 - $1,000) will be realized in this favorable situation.

However, if the AAPL price pumps to $210, forced liquidation practically occurs after several margin-call warnings have been issued by Hwang's broker, regarding his jeopardized account state.

The worst chaotic emerges in a rare fast market, mostly like that the AAPL price edges up to 50% higher in 5 minutes, a bunch of potent share-buyback programs will soon be executing undoubtedly. This casualty will bring unpredictable disasters to all participants all over the market including the brokers.

Insufficiency of funds in Johns' accounts constrain the brokers to regress the shares to stock lenders. The brokers may suffer third-degree burns and serious respiratory system damage after rectifying the situations with significant compensation, even they have gotten senior competence with the mission-critical task of risk management.

To spare from bankruptcy or money-losing brought by overdrawn, the brokers routinely execute compulsory liquidations in advance of the trader's remnant margin falling below the maintenance requirement. Obviously, in this scenario mentioned above, a typical indirect asset borrowing pattern is surely not a trader-orientated design. Setting up and holding short positions under the traditional derivatives trading paradigm always accompany prohibitively untold crisis.

How Shorter Works

As traders, brokers even bankers around the globe have been stumbling together for decades, occupants in the DeFi industry were left scrambling to answer a series of questions: why will a smidge of disorganized vibration put the positions held by short-sellers into stunning situations? What should the innovator do to make the whole system stay largely beyond the radar despite market manipulation? Is there a gateway for conservative spot lenders and aggressive traders to neutralize the amassing risk, hereby spare from being busted during peak market hours altogether?

Indirectly leveraged trading procedures via intermediary agencies whereas, which seems to be convoluted and risky enough to acknowledge correctly, which is where Shorter comes in. To understand the mechanics of how Shorter functions barely outrank knowing how to use it.

Rulers constitute the Committee investigating the proposals submitted by users any second. The information along with this proposal should somehow convince 10% portions of this intact voting power to mandate its online.

Once a token loan pool gets through the voting without drama, whereafter marks the proposer's account permanently as pool creator soaking coherent further dividend in the smart contract.

Instead of standing aside, earning-hungry providers are regularly ravenous for pools with colossal yielding grades.

The vehicle named toke loan pools retains the tokens and operation records (e.g. deposit, withdraw, borrow and repay), securing all those treasured items, a bunch of containment rules is conducted. The approaching pools are initially obligated to be compatible with the ERC20 standard.

Making allowances for risk management, traders ever pick the desired one from these listing pools prudently. Lower volatility, moderate lever, and plenty supplement, these arguments are widely prevalent among those ingenious brains to some extent.

If they excel at sensing this rotary crypto market, traders would take tokens from pools and sell them out via DEXs within the trading interlayer for the quote currency in anticipation of encountering a lower price. The sell-off orders are executed rationally at the market-friendly size.

Assume that the price of underlying assets shortly skyrockets to an overly high apex by chance, in regular scenarios, the classic premier brokers would confront massive losses from traders' defaulting on margin calls.

More positively, Shorter's components all have a stake in understanding the traders' crucial needs and be eager to deliver them a fancier and revolutionary solution. Upon topping the overdrawn line, the raising price depletes nothing akin to tokens in the positions. State of the positions are rendered to LEGACY and the unsettlement USDs including the margin imposed at the beginning are brace for bidders' rightful auction.

If there are some legacy USDs in the position till the rooting pool's liquidation stage passed by, these legacy and underlying tokens will be prorated to the providers as their original deposit portion weight accordingly. Afterward, their equities end up with the premium profit of emerging tokens they supplied formerly, none of the lenders suffer financial loss and handicap of solvent during the whole span whereas several overdrawn conditions issued.

For a solution to be a paragon, it must achieve revertible miracles.

The liquidation ingredient offers functionality to bring the traders back. Doubtless, barely any bidder decide to attend the legacy auction as the rate selling to liquidation smart contract beneath the market price of debt token. But if the price goes along with a significant trend of dropping and finally it hit downwards the overdrawn line again, the bidders will come to cover the position debt at a slightly higher over the market price for arbitraging. The worst consequence halting the traders' overdrawn position vanishes confronting the exploratory product.

Nothing can prompt the engine to force sell the positions and override the compulsory liquidation price unless the trader changes the position size intendedly in terms of the immutable codes running on a high-performance blockchain.

In theory, the booms meant to happen hereby are suppressed decidedly due to the public disclosure of maximum liquidity, borrowing capacity, available bidders and debt coverage procedure, etc. No troubling issues tracking and unraveling the asset flow for now. With the auxiliary of sufficient liquidity provided by DEXs and other decentralized swaps, all of them are conceivable and can be identified via a blockchain scanner. This brilliant structure allows Shorter to obtain a portal to the full potential of DeFi.

Given that it's likely the security of assets and data are gaining traction as a way to accelerate the popularization of Shorter's usage.

Now you have learned the particularities of Shorter, it's time for a closer scouting on this blueprint. Don't forget to refer to the Key Actors indicating the details of system participants as further reading material which is conducive to a deeper dive.